Linux Operating System

Linux Server Architecture & its Features

A Linux Server is a dynamic modification of the Linux open-source Operating System that was designed and established by Linus Torvalds in the year 1991. It is specifically designed to control the more demanding needs of business applications such as network and system administration, database management, Web services etc.

It has become very popular these days and is still growing. Some of the leading Linux Server OS include Debian, Ubuntu, Slackware, etc. it has some diverse features that differentiate it from other operating systems. Here, we are going to look into some of those features. But before we go into that, let us understand a bit about the Linux architecture.

The Linux OS Architecture

The architecture of a Linux OS has the following five components:

  • The Kernel: – It is the core part of any Linux operating system. It is actually, the computer program of the OS and as such, is responsible for all the major activities or actions of the OS. It consists of different memory modules that interact directly with the primary hardware. The kernel offers the required construct to hide application programs or low-level hardware details to the system. Various types of kernels are used such as monolithic kernels, exo-kernels, microkernels, etc.

  • System Library: – It is a set of predefined program or special functions, with the help of which, the application programs (or system utilities) access the features of the Kernel. They generally implement the functionality of the operating system and hence, do not require any access code from the Kernel module.

  • System Utilities: – These are the application programs that are responsible for specialized and/or individual tasks as directed by the Kernel and System Libraries.

  • Hardware: – Generally it consists of RAM, HDD, CPU, etc.

  • The Shell: – The Shell acts as an interface between the user and the Kernel; it takes commands from the user and relay it to the Kernel for it to execute those orders. Shells present in the different OS are classified into two categories: Command-line and Graphical Shells. As the names suggest, a command-line shell will provide a command-line interface, whereas a graphical shell gives a graphical interface to the user. The latter one is slower although both of them are capable of carrying out the same actions.

Features of the Linux OS

We are going to look into some of the features of the Linux OS:

Linux Features
  • Customized Keyboards:

Due to its availability in multiple languages, Linux has many users all over the globe. This feature allows for a customizable keyboard according to the language needs of people from different nations.

  • No need of installation:

Almost all of the distributed Linux services/systems come with an included Live CD or USB feature. This allows the customer to use and run the operating system without the need of installation.

  • Application Support:

A Linux OS or server has a software arsenal or storeroom, where a large number of software can be downloaded, via the terminal or shell of Linux. It can even run Windows software.

  • Graphical User Interface:

Although Linux has a command-line UI, it comes with the features of installing a user interface system graphically, based on Windows.

  • Portability and Open Source:

Linux OS can also be used on different types of hardware; moreover, the Linux kernel supports the installation of any kind of hardware platform.

Linux has an open-source operating system, which means that the source code for this operating system is freely available to all, for use and modification, which is being conducted by various teams, for enhancing its features and performances in the future.

  • Multiuser and Multiprogramming:

Multiple users can access the system resources of the Linux OS, like RAM, Applications etc, at the same time, making it a multi-user OS. Furthermore, multiple applications can also be run at the same time, thus making it a multi-programming OS. This is a very practical feature of the Linux operating system.

  • Hierarchical File System:

Linux OS not only consists of a standard file structure for arranging system files and/or user files, but also known as the File Hierarchy System or FHS.

Here, the locations of the files are shown to be in the root directory, irrespective of their storage devices; virtual or physical. Some of the directories are:

  1. /root: – root or main directory for the entire file system.
  2. /bin: – Essential user command binaries.
  3. /boot: – boot loader files like kernels etc.
  4. /dev: – essential device files.
  5. /etc: – host-specific, system-wide device files, containing configuration files required by all programs.
  6. /home: – the users’ home directory files containing personal settings, etc.
  7. /lib: – libraries essential for the binaries in /bin and /sbin.
  8. /media: – Mount points for removable media such as CD-ROMs, etc.
  9. /mnt: – temporarily mounted file systems.
  10. /opt: – optional application software packages.
  11. /sbin: – essential system binaries.
  12. /srv: – site-specific data; data and scripts for web servers, etc.
  13. /tmp: – temporary files, which may have severe size restrictions.
  14. /usr: – secondary hierarchy for read-only user data.
  15. /proc: – virtual file system, providing process and kernel info as files.

This feature is also very useful to arrange files in a standard way.

  • Good Security:
linux seurity

Linux prioritizes the protection of confidential information of the users from potential threats such as hackers or unauthorized access to entering the system. This feature is also a reason behind the global market of the Linux OS. Linux system uses Security features like Authentication, Authorization, and Encryption. Thus, it is evident that the Linux system is safe to use.

Thus, it can also be concluded that Linux OS is not only helpful and practical, easy-to-use with a very user-friendly UI, but also a safe and secure operating system with a number of servers across the globe.


Security and Important Benefits of using Cloud Linux

CloudLinux OS has various benefits over other operating systems that are engaged in shared hosting. It has various compatibility, efficiency, reliability, stability and security features to it. However, let us first understand what CloudLinux operating system is, and how it affects web hosting.

What is CloudLinux?

CloudLinux is an operating system primarily designed, for shared hosting providers. It is a modified kernel, based on an OpenVZ kernel, which is easily interchangeable with the current CentOS kernel with few steps. It separates all tenants using shared server resources into the distinct lightweight virtualized environment (LVE) to improve or limit the server resources of each tenant; thereby improves the security, stability, and density of each tenant.

Challenges faced while working in a shared hosting environment and how CloudLinux handle them

Working in a shared hosting environment can be challenging, as there are hundreds to thousands of websites that are hosted, and as such, server administrator has limited control over the resources used by each of these websites. Most you need to keep the resources intact thus not allow abusing the server resources. It is quite difficult to limit CPU, RAM, and other resources to each website. There are situations when one of the websites seems to be grabbing most of the server resources (sudden spike in the resource usage), which may be due to heavy traffic or poorly written scripts and more potentially, DDOS attack on the server. These situations are the most challenging to server admins to cope on a daily basis and can lead to downtime for rest of the websites on the server or it can even make the server unresponsive.

Launched in 2010, CloudLinux can be quite useful in order to achieve a high stability on the shared server environments. CloudLinux provides LVE (Lightweight virtualized environment) along with CAGEFS that condense a website in the virtual isolated environment. Using this technology, the resources can then be limited, monitored, managed via a graphical user interface tool LVE manager.

Features and benefits of the OS

CloudLinux copes with the above-mentioned situations in the following ways:

  • Helps secure the server from slowing down due to the activities of one or more clients.
  • Separates the users on the shared hosting environment from one another to limit security breaches.
  • Limits the spread of malware and virus within any client’s website.

Additionally, it has there are several other benefits, which include:

  • Stability features: The understanding of private virtual space is one of the most important reasons/benefit and feature of the CloudLinux OS. In the private virtual space, your own space protects your website against the actions of other hosted servers trying to slow or crash your server. With this stability feature, your website will deliver fewer error messages to people accessing your page, thereby creating a higher volume of traffic.

  • Security features: CloudLinux also releases new security patches from time-to-time to keep client’s website protected. The lightweight virtualized environment (LVE) helps to prevent malware and hackers from accessing vulnerable files from your website or getting your information from other users on the server. In other words, CloudLinux helps to create bubbles, which protect your hosting account by neither letting hackers access your data nor letting your data from leaking out.

  • Customer isolation: CloudLinux’ lightweight virtualization environment protects individual accounts from malicious attacks; it protects the server from being affected when one account goes down, unlike other servers that get dragged down as one account goes. This is achieved by controlling the amount of RAM and CPU that can be utilized within any server while running an operation.

  • Ease of conversion: It is equally important and easy to convert from other operating systems to CloudLinux OS. Converting from RHEL or CentOS does not take much time to complete. Besides you can buy your license from any ordering platform and get started to enjoy great security updates and patches.

  • Excellent support: The customer service support for CloudLinux is very pleasant. They can easily support you to get through usage, configuration, and installation problems as well as resolving bug fixes and run diagnosis to understand the problem with your website.

  • Harden/Secure Kernel: The secure kernel prevents malicious users from attacking other user’s website on the server with symlink protection, trace exploit by restricting the visibility of ProcFS to only what is required.

  • Database stability: CloudLinux provides MySQL governor. In fact, it is an essential tool to monitor and restrict MySQL usage in a shared hosting environment.This tool gives you a choice to run the operation in multiple modes.

  • Compatibility: Another key benefit of using CloudLinux OS is compatibility with other interfaces like cPanel.Consequently the high compatibility between these two interfaces enables users to access higher services and lower frustrations. A faster, as well as free hosting experience, gives the clients the ability to manage their website resources.

  • Admin interface in WHM: The graphical user interface is designed in a simplified format for monitoring, modifying and managing user accounts on CPU, RAM, and I/O usage.

Further CloudLinux has offered organizations an easy, reliable, compatible, affordable, secure and great customer support to host their website successfully. Thus, it is most advisable to utilize these opportunities in other to pick the above-mentioned benefits.