Linux Operating System

Linux Server Architecture & its Features

A Linux Server is a dynamic modification of the Linux open-source Operating System that was designed and established by Linus Torvalds in the year 1991. It is specifically designed to control the more demanding needs of business applications such as network and system administration, database management, Web services etc.

It has become very popular these days and is still growing. Some of the leading Linux Server OS include Debian, Ubuntu, Slackware, etc. it has some diverse features that differentiate it from other operating systems. Here, we are going to look into some of those features. But before we go into that, let us understand a bit about the Linux architecture.

The Linux OS Architecture

The architecture of a Linux OS has the following five components:

  • The Kernel: – It is the core part of any Linux operating system. It is actually, the computer program of the OS and as such, is responsible for all the major activities or actions of the OS. It consists of different memory modules that interact directly with the primary hardware. The kernel offers the required construct to hide application programs or low-level hardware details to the system. Various types of kernels are used such as monolithic kernels, exo-kernels, microkernels, etc.

  • System Library: – It is a set of predefined program or special functions, with the help of which, the application programs (or system utilities) access the features of the Kernel. They generally implement the functionality of the operating system and hence, do not require any access code from the Kernel module.

  • System Utilities: – These are the application programs that are responsible for specialized and/or individual tasks as directed by the Kernel and System Libraries.

  • Hardware: – Generally it consists of RAM, HDD, CPU, etc.

  • The Shell: – The Shell acts as an interface between the user and the Kernel; it takes commands from the user and relay it to the Kernel for it to execute those orders. Shells present in the different OS are classified into two categories: Command-line and Graphical Shells. As the names suggest, a command-line shell will provide a command-line interface, whereas a graphical shell gives a graphical interface to the user. The latter one is slower although both of them are capable of carrying out the same actions.

Features of the Linux OS

We are going to look into some of the features of the Linux OS:

Linux Features
  • Customized Keyboards:

Due to its availability in multiple languages, Linux has many users all over the globe. This feature allows for a customizable keyboard according to the language needs of people from different nations.

  • No need of installation:

Almost all of the distributed Linux services/systems come with an included Live CD or USB feature. This allows the customer to use and run the operating system without the need of installation.

  • Application Support:

A Linux OS or server has a software arsenal or storeroom, where a large number of software can be downloaded, via the terminal or shell of Linux. It can even run Windows software.

  • Graphical User Interface:

Although Linux has a command-line UI, it comes with the features of installing a user interface system graphically, based on Windows.

  • Portability and Open Source:

Linux OS can also be used on different types of hardware; moreover, the Linux kernel supports the installation of any kind of hardware platform.

Linux has an open-source operating system, which means that the source code for this operating system is freely available to all, for use and modification, which is being conducted by various teams, for enhancing its features and performances in the future.

  • Multiuser and Multiprogramming:

Multiple users can access the system resources of the Linux OS, like RAM, Applications etc, at the same time, making it a multi-user OS. Furthermore, multiple applications can also be run at the same time, thus making it a multi-programming OS. This is a very practical feature of the Linux operating system.

  • Hierarchical File System:

Linux OS not only consists of a standard file structure for arranging system files and/or user files, but also known as the File Hierarchy System or FHS.

Here, the locations of the files are shown to be in the root directory, irrespective of their storage devices; virtual or physical. Some of the directories are:

  1. /root: – root or main directory for the entire file system.
  2. /bin: – Essential user command binaries.
  3. /boot: – boot loader files like kernels etc.
  4. /dev: – essential device files.
  5. /etc: – host-specific, system-wide device files, containing configuration files required by all programs.
  6. /home: – the users’ home directory files containing personal settings, etc.
  7. /lib: – libraries essential for the binaries in /bin and /sbin.
  8. /media: – Mount points for removable media such as CD-ROMs, etc.
  9. /mnt: – temporarily mounted file systems.
  10. /opt: – optional application software packages.
  11. /sbin: – essential system binaries.
  12. /srv: – site-specific data; data and scripts for web servers, etc.
  13. /tmp: – temporary files, which may have severe size restrictions.
  14. /usr: – secondary hierarchy for read-only user data.
  15. /proc: – virtual file system, providing process and kernel info as files.

This feature is also very useful to arrange files in a standard way.

  • Good Security:
linux seurity

Linux prioritizes the protection of confidential information of the users from potential threats such as hackers or unauthorized access to entering the system. This feature is also a reason behind the global market of the Linux OS. Linux system uses Security features like Authentication, Authorization, and Encryption. Thus, it is evident that the Linux system is safe to use.

Thus, it can also be concluded that Linux OS is not only helpful and practical, easy-to-use with a very user-friendly UI, but also a safe and secure operating system with a number of servers across the globe.

Linux Operating System Server Technology

Importance of Server Management Services

Several organizations spend a major part of their IT resources in order to handle the environment. In the process, they miss out on the mission-critical industry initiatives. A report shows that about 66% of the average annual IT expenditure goes to maintaining and operating the surroundings.

The server is a significant part of the IT Company and it is a blend of hardware and software. It has lots of data and information stored in it. There can be additional services which are not limited to hosting services, messaging, contact, chat services, etc. so all these services to be always running, Server Monitoring is vital.

It is done, periodically or even constantly in order to confirm that every aspect of the server support services is going on for your industry as well for the customers.

By opting for data server management services it is possible to outsource several of the basic IT core administration tasks mostly coordinated with storage, backup, and virtual server management. Any industry organization can resume resources and utilize these to expand and change their business by outsourcing essential IT tasks. With the data center management services, it is potential to:-

  • Ensure that storage operations are managed effectively as well as measurable improvement is being completed to manage growth.
  • Optimize the backup set. With full remote management, you can produce reports, watch and put up right alerts thus enabling your organization to recognize and deal with problems in an exact way.
  • Improve the presentation and effectiveness of virtual server environments. There are early alerts which will tell you about capacity and presentation problems, as well as possible resource blockages.

Round the Clock Server Management Services

Round the Clock Server Management Services

If you opt access round the clock services, there will constantly be somebody to offer you with help if your server malfunctions. This means that you do not have to wait until regular industry hours if you need to resolve any problems with your server.

Being capable to reach 24-hour support means that your downtime will be minimized & your uptime will be maximized, a sense that you will have even more opportunities to develop your business.

Focus your time

As you only have a partial amount of time every day, server management services let you focus your time and attention on the things that truly matter and which truly make your industry tick. Rather than spending huge portions of your working day fixing the trouble with your server, outsourcing these tasks to a management service means that you can use your time concentrating on the things which you know about, where the management corporation can spend their time focussing on your servers.

Companies providing Data server management services play quite a significant and responsible role. The server administrator must keep monitoring the server remotely, find problems immediately and upgrade/ fix these so. It is the liability of the service provider to make sure optimization and data safety round the clock.

Here are some reasons why you must work with an infatuated server management service provider.

Server Monitoring

Server Monitoring does the analysis of metrics that verify the performance of your server. Monitoring ensures that your business is working at its most at any given time and offers a chance to spot and forestall problems before they have an effect on performance in real time. Also, it permits you to look at your IT infrastructure and set up for future expansions. Therefore, the requirement to figure with a balanced server observance team.

Server Maintenance

Without the correct server maintenance practices, your business is sure to encounter performance problems. The server, its put in a code, security measures and preventative measures must be updated on time. Server management service suppliers perform regular system audits that verify your security effectiveness, roll out updates once necessary, set migration, backup, and restoration processes to confirm your server functions effectively.

Custom server setup

Servers vary; the server accustomed host a WordPress diary needs a unique set of configuration as compared to a website used for E-commerce. Your server’s configuration ought to be determined by your business needs. Server managers review your business hosting and server needs to see the server settings and specifications that fit your business formation. At the initial set-up, business best practices are enforced to put together the server, guarantee the best performance and defend it from vulnerability attacks and exploits.

Server stability

Server stability depends on parameters like load, speed, server code, and repair up-time among others. a small configuration error or code conflict will derail the whole server and its performance. Server specialists work to confirm timely code updates so as to stop conflicts and time period. in addition, important server performance aspects like page load time and information lag are sometimes audited and re-optimized to ensure top-notch performance.

Uptime assurance

Every online business depends on up-time to remain practical. As such, a server that fails to ensure up-time throughout important services is unreliable and would price you, loyal customers. Associate in skilled server management for medium-sized businesses service supplier ought to guarantee uptime for your business servers and also the service in it. this is often created doable through around the clock server observance as noted on top.

Linux Operating System Server Server Security Technology

DDoS Protection – Avoid Threats

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack targets that a business that is linked to the cyber globe through the internet. It’s hard to identify the exact cause, or the objectives of these attacks as of the covert sources controlling the PC that send fake traffic requests to the objective. Yet, there is some common drive behind DDoS attacks. Here we describe some of the common motive of these attacks so that you can start to understand your capacity to act in response to attacks.

Quite frequently DDOS victims are not conscious of the fact that their computers have been compromised, but they will suffer ruin of service and malfunction. Denial of service distress owners, in addition to targeted sites consumer and Anti DDOS must be a priority for all site holders.
One of the most normal reasons of DDoS attacks is called Extortion. It’s really hijacking the victim’s network or net services and demanding money. People do it for cash.
Enmity is one more reason of DDoS attacks. As such it’s a gang war. Both the competitors attempt to disrupt every others’ process and network infrastructure. As it is one of the maximum risky threats, they use it like a weapon in opposition to each other.

The whole thing is fair in love, war and rivalry. Sometimes cyber criminals get engaged in anti-business activities and attempt to take down the challenger’s website or servers through DDoS attack.
A famous hacker group fond of using DDoS attacks is the Anonymous collective. Together with their splinter group LulzSec that shut down previous in 2011, the group presented numerous extremely publicized attacks against the websites of business and even foreign governments. The cause DDoS attacks are so successful is that they are almost impossible to stop. DDoS protection works are centered on trying to mitigate the effects of an attack before it begins. The most effective method to protect against a DDoS attack depends on redundancy. Having multiple servers host different instances of the similar website helps prevent an attack from blocking access to the site overall.
Even if an attack does happen, redundancy should decrease the effects it has. Overloading a single server is simple, but overloading many servers at once is more complex. DDoS protection has to take the structure of an attack into account. A DDoS attack frequently starts with a whole network of enslaved computers named a botnet. Botnets are formed through worms, Trojan horses and additional malicious programs. The customer may be totally unaware their computer has really been turned into a virtual zombie. Customers can aid to by accident spread the botnet because some programs can insert themselves into email messages and set up themselves on receiver’s computers.

It is unnecessary to say that Anti DDOS & network protection services have become necessary for the success of any online business and a safe infrastructure is the foundation for efficient service delivery for whole businesses. Business owners who need to secure their network assets from DDOS attacks can always choose for expert DDOS Protection. Unluckily these attacks will not go away and for this cause Anti DDOS services have become very important.